Choosing the Right Soil For a Vegetable Garden (Australian Guide)

The first thing you want to do is look at the type of soil that you have and determine its properties. Do you have heavy clay soil or a lighter sandy loam?

When you’re first planning out your vegetable garden, you need to give strong consideration to the type of soil that you have and how this will affect the growth and vitality of your vegetables.

Now, in saying that, remember that any type of soil can be improved to successfully support a healthy crop of vegetables.

Personally, I’ve grown vegetables in both clay and sandy soil and have always achieved good results when I’ve spent a little time improving what is already there.

The soil that you use will depend on whether you’re growing directly in the ground and have to work with what’s already there or whether you decide to create a raised garden bed and have to add some soil to fill it. Even growing in pots requires a quality potting mix in order to get good results.

So, let’s look at all the different scenarios and how you can set your veggie patch up to get the best results.

What soil to use for a vegetable garden growing in the ground

The first thing you want to do is look at the type of soil that you have and determine its properties. Do you have heavy clay soil or a lighter sandy loam?

soil pH. | Plant care

Sandy loam soils are perfect for growing vegetables but will benefit from the addition of a layer of compost. This will help to hold the moisture and will also add some valuable nutrients.

As I currently live near the coast, I have sandy soil which is far different to the clay soil I had to work with in my last garden. For me, this has made growing vegetables so much easier because all I did was add some homemade compost to the top and raked it in a little.

Compost Bin 2 | Plant care

Heavy clay soils will benefit from the addition of gypsum. This helps to break up the tightly bound particles and improves drainage. After you’ve worked some gypsum into the soil, you also want to add a good layer of compost and then work that in. 

With this type of soil, it’s better to do all of this preparation and then leave the area fallow for a few months so that all the organic matter has had time to break down a little and improve the soil structure.

Alternatively, a better solution is to build or buy some raised garden beds and place these on the ground where you want your vegetables to grow.

What soil to use in a raised vegetable garden

If you intend to grow your vegetables in raised garden beds, the most important thing to remember is that you don’t want to fill these with your current garden soil.

This is because a raised bed allows you to provide your vegetables with the best growing conditions and a lot of normal garden soils aren’t ideal for this.

Raised garden bed 1 | Plant care

This is especially the case if you live in a newly built estate. What you may or may not know is that when new estates are created, quite often the topsoil is removed and sold to garden centres.

Therefore, all you’re left with is the subsoil which is deficient in organic matter and you’ll find it tough to grow nice healthy vegetables.

My top choice for filling raised garden beds is compost but unless you have tons of it, this can be quite expensive if you have to buy it.

What you can do instead is use the layering method.

This involves filling the bed with layers of straw, compost, aged animal manure and local topsoil that you can purchase from a garden centre.

Raised garden bed 4 | Plant care

Over time, the layers will break down and blend together to create the richest soil for your vegetable to grow in.

But, you don’t have to wait for this to happen to start planting. Just ensure that you place a thick layer of compost on the top and plant your veggies in this.

So, my ideal layer recipe would be:

  • Straw or sugar cane mulch
  • Aged animal manure
  • Local topsoil
  • A thick layer of compost

You will find though that the organic material will break down over time, so it will be necessary to top up the bed with additional compost in between plantings.

Don’t forget to add a layer of straw on the top after planting to act as mulch. This too, will break down and add goodness to the soil.

What soil to use when growing in pots

If you have limited space and want to grow your vegetables in pots instead, you need to use a premium potting mix for this.

soil bag | Plant care

Never be tempted to fill your pots with garden soil as you will end up with poor results.

You see, garden soil is far too heavy for potted plants and often doesn’t have the desired structure. Your best bet is to visit your local garden centre and buy a good quality potting mix that is designed for growing vegetables.

If you do happen to make your own compost, you can cut down the cost a little by mixing the potting mix with some compost and then using that to grow your vegetables.

Photo of author

Annette Hird

Annette Hird is a gardening expert with many years of experience in a range of gardening related positions. She has an Associate Diploma of Applied Science in Horticulture and has worked in a variety of production nurseries, primarily as a propagator. She has also been responsible for a large homestead garden that included lawn care, fruit trees, roses and many other ornamental plants. More recently, Annette has concentrated on improving the garden landscape of the homes that she has lived in and focused a lot of energy on growing edible plants as well. She now enjoys sharing her experience and knowledge with others by writing articles about all facets of gardening and growing plants.


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